The Intersectional Wage Gaps Faced By Latina Women In The United States
Stop Using The Word “Caucasian” To Mean White
While women are attending college at a higher rate than men (56 percent of four-year-college enrollees were women in 2017), enrollment figures don’t match their share of student loan debt. And of course, a persistent wage gap makes it harder to pay off debt.
Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. Similarly, and by the same reasoning, French-Americans, Italian-Americans and Romanian-Americans are also all considered Latino.
According to the National Salvadoran Indigenous Coordination Council and CONCULTURA , approximately 70,000 or 1 per cent of Salvadorian peoples are indigenous. Nonetheless, very few Amerindians have retained their customs and traditions, having over time assimilated into the dominant Mestizo/Spanish culture. The low numbers of indigenous people may be partly explained by historically high rates of old-world diseases, absorption into the mestizo population, as well as mass murder during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising which saw up to 30,000 peasants killed in a short period of time. Many authors note that since La Matanza the indigenous in El Salvador have been very reluctant to describe themselves as such or to wear indigenous dress or be seen to be taking part in any cultural activities or customs that might be understood as indigenous.
New York City’s Puerto Rican community contributed to the creation of hip hop music, and to many forms of Latin music including Boogaloo, Salsa, Latin house and Freestyle. Puerto Ricans in New York created their own cultural movement and cultural institutions such as the Nuyorican Poets Cafe. Between the 1950s and the 1980s, large numbers of Puerto Ricans migrated to New York, especially to Brooklyn, The Bronx and the Spanish Harlem and Loisaida neighborhoods of Manhattan.
In 1960, the number of stateside Puerto Ricans living in New York City as a whole was 88%, with most (69%) living in East Harlem. They helped others settle, find work, and build communities by relying on social networks containing friends and family. New York City neighborhoods such as East Harlem in Upper Manhattan, the South Bronx and Bushwick in Brooklyn are often the most associated with the stateside Puerto Rican population. However, several neighborhoods in eastern North Philadelphia, especially Fairhill, have some of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans in the United States, Fairhill having the highest when being compared to other big city neighborhoods.
The theory creates an “us vs. them” dynamic based on social categories, which in terms of ethnic minorities becomes “white vs. non-white.” The members of an in-group find negative traits of an out-group in order to enhance their own self-image. A concept known as the “social identity theory” explains how people derive their identity from the groups they are welcomed to based on commonalities. There are in-groups and out-groups, and people find worth in being in those in-groups.
In the United States, female employment has become an increasingly important determinant of family economic well-being, especially among disadvantaged populations such as Latinas. Female employment offers these women more autonomy, the chance to support themselves without relying on a spouse. Of the Latinas participating in the labor force, 32.2% work in the service sector, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This percentage is significantly higher than that of white women, who fall at 20%. Conversely, Latinas are underrepresented in various other sectors of the labor force, particularly as business owners.
Puerto Ricans are largely spread out in the Orlando area, but the heaviest concentration is in the southern portions, like Kissimmee, Poinciana and many other areas in Osceola County, where Puerto Ricans make up the majority of the population. Puerto Ricans first arrived in the early part of the 20th century from more affluent families to study at colleges or universities. In the 1950s two small barrios emerged known as la Clark and La Madison just North and West of Downtown, near hotel jobs and then where the factories once stood.
Representing 8% of Philadelphia’s total population and 75% of the city’s Hispanic/Latino population, as of 2010. Puerto Ricans are the largest Latino group in the city and that, outside Puerto Rico, Philadelphia now has the second largest Puerto Rican population, estimated at over 130,000. Since 2010, Philadelphia replaced the city of Chicago as the city with the second-largest Puerto Rican population, Chicago’s slightly shrunk and Philadelphia’s continued to grow, more than ever before, not only having the second largest Puerto Rican population, but also one of the fastest-growing. Most sources, including the most reliable, the United States Census Bureau, estimated that as of 2010, Puerto Ricans made up between percent of Philadelphia’s Hispanic/Latino population. Other sources put the percentage Puerto Ricans make up of Philadelphia’s Hispanic population, as high as 90% and others as low as 64%.
As women, racial and ethnic minorities and members of a low socioeconomic status group, Latinas posses a triple minority status, all of which impact their educational opportunities. In 2011, the American Civil Liberties Unionmaintainedthat mass incarceration has an exceptional effect on Latinas and black women, who are typically the primary caregivers for their children and are also disproportionately victimized. While Latinas have predominantly been excluded from research on body image and eating disorders, they are not immune from developing disordered eating habits and mental illnesses like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. On the contrary, despite rarely being reported or diagnosed,recent studiesshow that Latinas have eating disorders and body image issues at rates comparable to or greater than non-Latina whites.
Soon, Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony on its way to becoming an important military outpost. The Constitution originally mandated election by popular vote only for the House of Representatives, with Senators being chosen by State legislatures. The 17th amendment specified direct popular election for Senators.
The two major ethnic groups are the Quechuas , followed by the Aymara, mostly found in the extreme southern Andes. A large proportion of the ethnic groups who live in the Andean highlands still speak Quechua and have vibrant cultural traditions, some of which were part of the Inca Empire. In the 2017 Census, those of 12 years old and above were asked what ancestral origin they belong to with 60.2% of Peruvians self-identified as Mestizos, 22.3% as Quechuas, 5.9% as White, 3.6% as Afro-Peruvian, 2.4% as Aymaras, 0.3% as Amazonians, 0.16% as Asian.
As explained in Motivations of Immigration, many women come to the United States for a better education, among other factors. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research explains the workings of organizations aimed to support the struggles of Latina immigrants. The IWPR states that growing organizations are currently providing English tutors and access to education. Programs specifically for Latina immigrants now use an adaptation tactic of teaching, rather than an assimilation ideology to help this population adjust to American life. Programs like these include Casa Latina Programs, providing education on English, workers’ rights, and the consumer culture of America.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Civilian labor force participation rate, by age, sex, race, and ethnicity” (U.S. Department of Labor, 2017). None of these policy interventions is a silver bullet on its own, but together they would support greater economic opportunity for Latina workers and all other workers. As the wage decomposition in this brief demonstrates, the wage gap for Hispanic women is primarily caused by unexplained discrimination, followed by workplace segregation and restricted access to educational opportunities. Ensuring greater equity means fostering a more dynamic U.S. labor market in which Latina workers are able to invest in their human capital and productivity and get access to more opportunities that will help them earn higher wages, support their families, and jumpstart innovation and productivity growth in the economy. Access to training and apprenticeship is especially important for underrepresented groups.
The influx of other Latino and Hispanic groups between 2000 and 2010, may have slightly decreased the proportion Puerto Ricans make up of the city’s total Latino and Hispanic population. Though, unlike many other large northern cities, which have declining or slow-growing Puerto Rican populations, Philadelphia has one of the fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country. The struggle for legal work and affordable housing remains fairly low and the implementation of favorable public policy fairly inconsistent.
She is also on the Advisory Board of the National Latina Business-Women Association-Inland Empire Chapter, the Orange County Community Housing Corporation, the Affordable Housing Clearing House, the National Hispanic Business-Women Association, the Hispanic Education Endowment Fund, and the Orange County Human Relations. She has been the recipient of many awards throughout her professional career.
Words used for similar purposes include Chicanx, Latin@ and Latine. Mexican painter Frida Kahlo de Rivera is best known for her self-portraits, her political http://baytimurinsaat.com/the-most-ignored-solution-for-cuban-women/ activism and her focus on Mexican and Amerindian cultural traditions. Her works depicting women have also gained her the status of a feminist icon.
McFarlane J, Malecha A, Gist J, Watson K, Batten E, Hall I, et al. Intimate partner sexual assault against women and associated victim substance use, suicidality, and risk factors for femicide.
ASPIRA was established in New York City in 1961 and is now one of the largest national Latino nonprofit organizations in the United States. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the United States since the 19th century and migrating since and have a long history of collective social advocacy for their political and social rights and preserving their cultural heritage. In New York City, which has the largest concentration of Puerto Ricans in the United States, they began running for elective office in the 1920s, electing one of their own to the New York State Assembly for the first time in 1937. Although the 2010 Census counted the number of Puerto Ricans living in the States at 4.6 million, estimates in 2018 show the Puerto Rican population to be 5.8 million.